A-Level生物辅导:应用遗传学Applied Genetics









Paper 1——40道选择题,时间为45分钟,占总比重的30%,考察同学们对基本生物知识点的掌握。

Paper 3——大约6道解答题,时间长为1小时15分钟,占总比重的50%,更深入的考察同学们对知识点的掌握。

Paper 6——是实验代替题(并不需要大家做实验),它的考试时间为1个小时。大家可以把Paper6想象升级版的解答题。

A-Level生物辅导:应用遗传学Applied Genetics

Define genetic screening

Testing a population for the presence or absence of a gene

Discuss three advantages and disadvantages of genetic screening


Lessen the devastating impact of genetic disease

Identification of persons who have genetically determined susceptibilities to specific environmental agents

Insurance Companies can give lower premiums


Can stigmatize and emotionally traumatize those who learn that they are carriers of genetic defects

Invasion of privacy

Has the potential of being used to dictate who may or may not reproduce

State that the Human Genome project is an international cooperative venture to sequence the complete human genome

Discuss two possible advantages of this project

Understanding of many genetic diseases

Genome libraries

Production of gene probes to detect sufferers and carriers of genetic diseases

Production of pharmaceuticals based on DNA sequences

Define clone

A group of organisms of identical genotype / a group of cells descended from a single parent cell.

Outline a technique used in the cloning of farm animals

Early division of a fertilized egg produces 8 cells each of which would give rise to an embryo (totipotency).

After in vitro fertilization processes the 8 resultant separated embryos can be transferred to surrogate mothers (e.g. cattle or sheep) to continue using selected prime animals for the production of gametes

At present used for genetically manipulated animals to produce pharmaceuticals

Discuss the ethical issues of cloning human embryos

Happens naturally in monozygotic twins

In vitro fertilization of twins unacceptable?

Selection of those fit to be cloned

Eugenics and super-race?

Discuss the results of crop plant and animal breeding

Breeding for disease resistance

Increased food production

Higher yields of milk/wool/protein

Breeding plants that can spread


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