A-Level生物辅导:应用遗传学Applied Genetics

很多的时候人们一想起A-Level生物辅导,就自然的和解剖挂上钩,就会想到解剖青蛙、解剖老鼠等等。事实上也是如此,英国A-Level生物学课程必须要通过非常多的实验来进行学习,各种各样的解剖试验大概也是学生们最有挑战的部分了,尤其是对胆子小的女生。

学习内容

首先,学生们需要在GCSE学习知识的基础上,还要更深入地了解和学习有关生物化学、生态学、遗传学、微生物学和生理学方面等的知识。

其次就是学习和练习试验方法,熟悉并自行掌握各种实验室的技术,特别是显微镜的应用。

最后通过A-Level生物这门课程的学习,学生们需要学习和学会自我学习的一些方法,比如如何做研究、如何做数学分析、如何做有关于A-Level生物辅导的演示以及讲解及修订方法等等。

学习方法

生物是高一所有课程中最不受欢迎的一门课,庞大的词汇量,生僻的单词,还有繁杂的背诵都是不讨喜的。但是,生物课又是学霸的代名词,以前就觉得那些生物好的人全身都散发着光呢。那么,到底怎么样才能学好生物呢?

生物的题型跟物理有点像,分为3个Paper:

Paper 1——40道选择题,时间为45分钟,占总比重的30%,考察同学们对基本生物知识点的掌握。

Paper 3——大约6道解答题,时间长为1小时15分钟,占总比重的50%,更深入的考察同学们对知识点的掌握。

Paper 6——是实验代替题(并不需要大家做实验),它的考试时间为1个小时。大家可以把Paper6想象升级版的解答题。

A-Level生物辅导:应用遗传学Applied Genetics

Define genetic screening

Testing a population for the presence or absence of a gene

Discuss three advantages and disadvantages of genetic screening

Advantages

Lessen the devastating impact of genetic disease

Identification of persons who have genetically determined susceptibilities to specific environmental agents

Insurance Companies can give lower premiums

Disadvantage

Can stigmatize and emotionally traumatize those who learn that they are carriers of genetic defects

Invasion of privacy

Has the potential of being used to dictate who may or may not reproduce

State that the Human Genome project is an international cooperative venture to sequence the complete human genome

Discuss two possible advantages of this project

Understanding of many genetic diseases

Genome libraries

Production of gene probes to detect sufferers and carriers of genetic diseases

Production of pharmaceuticals based on DNA sequences

Define clone

A group of organisms of identical genotype / a group of cells descended from a single parent cell.

Outline a technique used in the cloning of farm animals

Early division of a fertilized egg produces 8 cells each of which would give rise to an embryo (totipotency).

After in vitro fertilization processes the 8 resultant separated embryos can be transferred to surrogate mothers (e.g. cattle or sheep) to continue using selected prime animals for the production of gametes

At present used for genetically manipulated animals to produce pharmaceuticals

Discuss the ethical issues of cloning human embryos

Happens naturally in monozygotic twins

In vitro fertilization of twins unacceptable?

Selection of those fit to be cloned

Eugenics and super-race?

Discuss the results of crop plant and animal breeding

Breeding for disease resistance

Increased food production

Higher yields of milk/wool/protein

Breeding plants that can spread

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