以CAIE ALevel Chemistry考试大纲为例，来看对Alkane的考察要求：
a) understand the general unreactivity of alkanes, including towards polar reagents
b) describe the chemistry of alkanes as exemplified by the following reactions of ethane:
(ii) substitution by chlorine and by bromine
c) describe the mechanism of free-radical substitution at methyl groups with particular reference to the initiation, propagation and termination reactions
d) explain the use of crude oil as a source of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
e) suggest how cracking can be used to obtain more useful alkanes and alkenes of lower Mr from larger hydrocarbon molecules
A device fitted in a car to reduce the amount of emissions from an internal combustion engine. They use expensive metals like platinum and rhodium as the heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst is mounted on a ceramic honeycomb to maximise the surface area.
A type of cracking that takes place at a slight pressure, high temperature and in the presence of a zeolite catalyst and is used mainly to produce motor fuels and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Combustion of alkanes
Combustion of alkanes releases energy.
During combustion, the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. Alkanes can undergo complete or incomplete combustion. Water and carbon dioxide are the only products of the complete combustion, whereas carbon monoxide and carbon particulates can be produced in incomplete combustion.
A process which involves breaking C-C bonds in alkanes to produce shorter chained alkanes and alkenes.
A finite resource found in rocks. It is the remains of an ancient biomass consisting mainly of plankton that was buried in mud. Most of the compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons.
A method of separating a mixture of substances according to their different boiling points. Commonly used to separate crude oil into different fractions.
Compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms only.
Organic compounds are saturated if all the carbon-carbon bonds are single C-C bonds. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
A type of cracking that takes place at high pressure and high temperature and produces a high percentage of alkenes.