1. A study was carried out to evaluate the signifi cance of food miles for cheese made from cows’ milk produced in New Zealand (NZ) and sold and consumed in the UK. The cheese is transported by ship from New Zealand to the UK, a distance of over 20 000 km. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for each stage of production and transport. The percent contribution of each stage to the total energy use and total GHG emissions are shown below.

(a) Identify the stage which contributes most to both energy use and GHG emissions.

(b) Distinguish between the contribution of transport to energy use and GHG emissions in the production of New Zealand cheese.

(c) Estimate the percentage of energy use and GHG contributed by shipping.

Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %

GHG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . %

(d) Using your knowledge of food miles and the information in the data, discuss whether consumers in the UK might choose New Zealand cheese.


2. (a) Water and minerals are essential in the human diet. List two other types of nutrient in a human diet.



(b) Outline the benefits of using iodine as a dietary supplement.

(c) Some ethnic groups rely heavily on fish as their staple energy source. Explain the possible health effects of a protein rich diet of this type.


3. (a) Outline the symptoms of type II diabetes. 

(b) Explain the dietary advice that should be given to a patient who has developed type II diabetes.




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