1. Populations in transition
The map shows the maternal mortality ratio (maternal deaths per 100 000 live births) for different countries in 2010.
(a) Briefly describe the global pattern of the maternal mortality ratio shown on the map.
(b) Suggest two reasons why the maternal mortality ratio is so high in some countries.
(c) Explain the recent trends in life expectancy at birth for a named country or region.
2. Disparities in wealth and development
The graph shows migrants’ remittances and official aid to low and middle income countries,1989–2009, in billions of US Dollars (USD).
(a) Define the term remittances.
(b) Referring to the graph, describe the trend in remittance flows since 1989.
(c) Suggest three reasons why international financial aid is not always effective.
3. Patterns in environmental quality and sustainability
The graph shows the categories of global water consumption in 2010.
(a) Identify Category X on the diagram.
(b) Define the term physical water scarcity.
(c) Explain two physical factors that affect the availability of safe drinking water for a community.
(d) Analyse the role of water in the causes of soil degradation.