Optional Theme A — Freshwater – issues and conflicts
1. (a) Describe two processes involved in the transport of a river’s load.
(b) Explain two environmental impacts of agriculture on water quality.
(c) “Floodplain management strategies have more costs than benefits.” Discuss this statement.
2. The diagram shows the response of a stream in an urban area compared with that of a stream in a neighbouring forested area after the same rainstorm event. (The basins are of similar size and drainage density.)
(a) Describe four differences between the two hydrographs shown on the diagram.
(b) Suggest reasons why the urban and forested hydrographs show different responses to the storm event.
(c) With reference to a named river flood event, examine the relative importance of natural and human causes.
Optional Theme B — Oceans and their coastal margins
3. The diagram shows a model of coastal advance and retreat.
(a) Identify two reasons shown on the diagram why some coasts advance.
(b) Explain why cliffs are often found along retreating coasts.
(c) Explain the global distribution of ocean ridges.
(d) Examine how the exploitation of one named oceanic resource has led to geopolitical conflict.