Optional Theme A — Freshwater – issues and conflicts
1. If you choose to answer this question refer to the diagram on page 4 in the Resources Booklet.
The diagram shows a river floodplain.
(a) Referring to the diagram, briefly describe two floodplain management strategies.
(b) Explain how human activities on a floodplain can increase the probability of flooding.
(c) “Eutrophication is the most damaging agricultural impact on water quality.”Discuss this statement.
2. (a) Draw a labelled diagram of a hydrograph.
(b) Explain how hydrographs are used to forecast floods.
(c) “Dams and reservoirs create as many problems as they solve.” Discuss this statement with reference to multi-purpose schemes.
Optional Theme B — Oceans and their coastal margins
3. The graph shows vertical variations in the salinity of ocean water.
(a) Describe the vertical variations in the salinity shown on the graph.
(b) (i) Explain what is meant by “oceanic conveyor belts”.
(ii) Suggest two reasons why oceanic conveyor belts are important.
(c) Discuss the effects of El Niño on some coastal margins.