As conventional sources of crude oil are depleted, unconventional sources such as oil sands (also known as tar sands) are being utilized. Oils sands contain bitumen, which can be processed into a synthetic crude oil. A regionof boreal forest in Alberta, Canada, that covers a deposit of oil sands will be cut and removed during the processof bitumen extraction. It is estimated that the deposit contains 73 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen. The rateof extraction from the deposit will be approximately 1 million barrels of bitumen per day.
(a) Identify one ecological benefit, other than providing habitat, that is provided by forests.
(b) Identify one economic benefit that is provided by forests.
(c) Describe TWO environmental consequences, other than those related to the loss of boreal forest habitat,
that result from the extraction of bitumen or the transportation of synthetic oil to customers.
(d) Assuming the above extraction rate, calculate how many days will be needed to extract the recoverable
volume of bitumen from the oil sands.
(e) Calculate how many years will be needed to fully extract the recoverable volume of bitumen from the oil sands.
(f) Monthly production of synthetic crude oil is 30 million barrels. Producing one barrel-synthetic crude oil
uses two barrels of heated freshwater. Calculate the number of barrels of freshwater needed each year to supply this demand.
这是一道 energy 的题目，通常 energy 的题目会有计算的部分，对于计算的部分注意单位，读懂条理关系，不要马虎错误就可以。另外这道题目还考察了 forest 的生态和经济功能，比较简单。
a 注意审题，other than 的题目，不要再回答 habitat 了。比如 nutrition，flood control，shade，很多。Forests produce oxygen by photosynthesis.
b 经济方面的好处，砍伐森林应该是最直接的，当然会可以有 ecotourism.One economic benefit that is provided by forests is timber harvesting.
c 开采或者运输的环境影响，考察 pollution,结合的知识点是 mining and transportation.Oneenvironmental consequence that results from the extraction is water pollution.As water pours through the discarded rock containing hazardous substances such as lead and mercury, it picks up these toxic substances.The contaminated water makes its way into surface streams and rivers as well as groundwater. Another environmental consequence is air pollution,trucks are the most used method of industrial transportation,and most trucks run on diesel.Burning fossil fuels may releasecarbon-based and nitrogen-based pollutants.
1-Earth systems and resources (10~15%)；
2-The living world (10~15%)；
4-Land and water use (10~15%)；
7-Global change (10~15%)。